讀《大學》有感
  作者:何少虎  時間:2019-06-10  點擊量:   
【字體:

人是社會動物,沒有人是可以單獨生存,完全不與其他人接觸的,如果有,那就是野人,而野人多了,聚集起來又必然會重歸其社會性。

人活著是為了什么呢?在滿足了基本的生存需求,保證了自身存在后,人需求的便是自我價值的實現。自我價值的實現一種是滿足自身欲望,追求感官的極致,放縱自己的行為,拔一毛利天下為不為看心情,生時只知縱情享樂,哪怕只得一時,死后哪管洪水滔天,他人苦樂如何;另一種則是將自我價值體現在他人的需求中,以自身對他人造成的價值影響來體現自身價值。就人類的社會特性而言,絕不可只注重個人而忽視甚至于無視整體的存在,前一種必然是錯誤的,而后一種才是正確的。假設人是一個細胞,那么家便是器官,眾多器官組合起來才是一個完整的有機個體。

家,是一個人社會性體現的直觀縮影,擁有一個怎樣的家庭是判斷一個人一生是否圓滿的重要標準。當家匯聚成國,家風便是國風。中華傳統文化治家以孝悌為主,輔以家規明文規范,講究的是父慈子孝,兄友弟恭。治國以忠明君為主,忠君對應孝親,于親不孝,禽獸不如,又何談忠義?《論語》云:弟子入則孝,出則悌,謹而信,泛愛眾,而親人。《大學》有云:欲治其國者,先齊其家。家齊而后國治。人為國之本,家為國之基,儒家思想以自身為點,輻射周邊,重在推己及人,從而達到天下大同的目的,而家在這一過程的作用尤為重要,類似一個連接點的存在。史載以來歷代明君莫不以身作則,以期上行下效,帶動整體社會風氣,如舜年幼喪母,盲父續弦娶妻,后母性情悍戾,在弟弟象出生后,更是苛待于舜,舜的名聲不斷在周邊傳揚,卻多次無緣無故被逐出家門,舜忍耐如故。堯聽聞舜的事跡,又聽說他年已三十父母還不曾為他娶妻,便將女兒嫁給他,弟象心生不軌,多次欲殺舜,舜逃生后仍舊不計前嫌。直至堯年老后,傳位于舜,舜居帝位以身垂范,留下了千古明君的好名聲。

封建時期,儒家思想被剝削階級拿來當作統治工具使用,多有故意歪曲謬解,如“民可使由之  不可使知之”便成了愚民政策的依據,但觀儒家經典及孔子生平故事,卻多是以教化為主,開啟民智為要,走的是我好、你好、大家好的路子。《論語.堯曰》:"不教而殺謂之虐。"由此可知“民可”句,應當為“民可,使由之;不可,使知之。”《易經·乾卦·用九》:“見群龍無首,吉。”群龍無首為何是吉象?因為人人如龍自強不息,無有高低貴賤之分,而這可不就是共產主義的終極目標么。

現如今是社會主義社會,勞動人民當家做主,不存在特權階級,祛除儒家思想中歷史局限性的一些觀點,儒家在促進社會和諧方面有著相當積極的作用。古時有總結儒家思想,稱為八端:“孝、悌、忠、信、禮、義、廉、恥”,以此作為衡量一個人道德品行的標準,后世常見罵人詞“王八蛋”便是“忘八端”的諧音。八端排序“孝悌”在“忠”之前,可見古人知曉家的重要性,對家的重視,國是家的延伸,忠是孝的延伸,只是忠的不再是某個具體的君王,而是國家這一概念。無有家,何來有國?無有國,何以保家?家不存,人何處之?相較今人,古人少了數千年歷史積累,家國之事古人猶知之,今人當謹持。

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